Libertad Borges Bittencourt

Living to tell - the diary and missives of the Granadian general Francisco de Paula Santander in exile (1829-1832)

The purpose of this research is to examine the diary and correspondence of the Granadian general Francisco de Paula Santander (1792-1840), one of the leaders of the independence of Colombia, written in the first half of the nineteenth century. Santander opposed Simón Bolívar as to the model of government to be established in the free regions of the Spanish yoke, and this dissent led to the charge of Santander's betrayal, imprisonment and condemnation to death. The penalty was commuted by the exile, which began on August 28, 1829, when Santander left Venezuela for Europe. This traumatic experience is narrated in the diary and in great correspondence, still little researched in Brazil.


The American melting pot and national identities: the place of the Americas in the Spanish-American thought in the 19th and 20th century

The present project aims to reflect on some essays that debate the issue on national formation, written by nineteenth century authors in Hispanic America. I will focus my analysis on the "Obras Completas" (1866), by the Chilean author, Francisco Bilbao, reissue of 2007; in the essay "Facundo - Civilização e barbárie" (1845), the Portuguese edition of 1996 and "Conflicto y Armonías de las razas" (1883), reissue of 1915 by the Argentinean author, Domingos Faustino Sarmiento. As a counterpoint to these two authors from South America, I will analyze the Mexican author's essay, also emblematic for the perspective I adopt here: Justo Sierra, in the book "Political Evolution of the Mexican People" (1900), reissue of 1986, revealing the specificity of the Mexican case as opposed to the Hispanic South America.